(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Statistical manual for the use of institutions for the insane"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book lhal w;ls preserved for general ions on library shelves before il was carefully scanned by Google as pari of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

Il has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one thai was never subject 

to copy right or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often dillicull lo discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher lo a library and linally lo you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud lo partner with libraries lo digili/e public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order lo keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial panics, including placing Icchnical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make n on -commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request thai you use these files for 
personal, non -commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort lo Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each lile is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use. remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 

countries. Whether a book is slill in copyright varies from country lo country, and we can'l offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through I lie lull lexl of 1 1 us book on I lie web 
al |_-.:. :.-.-:: / / books . qooqle . com/| 



JigmzocB, GoOgk' 



JigmzocB, GoOgk' 



7Sf/.--'-< ''I 




STATISTICAL MANUAL 



FOR THE USE OF 



c/L . .: '-■ 
INSTITUTIONS FOR THE INSANE A s ' *■ 



PREPARED BY TUB 

COMMITTEE ON STATISTICS 

OF THE 

AMERICAN MEDICO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

IN COLLABORATION WITH THE 

BUREAU OF STATISTICS 

OF THE 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOB MENTAL HYGIENE 
50 UNION SQUARE, NEW YORK CITY 



NEW YORK 
1918 



JigmzocB, GoOgk' 



\, i, i c ■ ss 

A*>'.i- 



»», Goggle 



FOREWORD 

The American Medico-Psychological Association at its 
meeting held in New York, in May 1917, adopted the report 
of its Committee on Statistics which provided for a system of 
uniform statistics in institutions for mental diseases, and 
appointed a standing Committee on Statistics to promote the 
introduction of the system throughout the country. This 
committee met in New York City on February 7, 1918, and in 
cooperation with the National Committee for Mental Hygiene 
outlined a plan of procedure. 

The National Committee has established a Bureau of Uni- 
^ form Statistics and has received a special gift to defray the 
i initial expenses of the work of collecting statistics from insti- 
tutions for the insane. As close relationships have always 
'.^existed between the American Medico-Psychological Associa- 
tion and the National Committee, it was thought wise for the 
Committee on Statistics to become an advisory committee to 
the Bureau of Uniform Statistics of the National Committee 
and to have the work of introducing the new system and of 
collecting statistics from the institutions carried out by the 
Bureau. 

In accordance with this arrangement the Bureau, with the 
assistance of the Committee on Statistics of the American 
Medico-Psychological Association,, has prepared this manual 
to assist the institutions in compiling their annual statistics 
and has printed a series of forms to be used in preparing 
statistical reports. The manual and duplicate forms will be 
furnished free to all cooperating institutions, and it is earn- 
estly hoped that they will be generally adopted, so that a 
national system of statistics of mental diseases may become 
an actuality. j! 1 - 



Jigmzccty GoOglc 



It is recommended that the standardized tables be used in 
the annual reports of the institutions so far as possible and 
that a duplicate copy of the tables be sent to the Bureau of 
Uniform Statistics of the National Committee for Mental 
Hygiene as soon as possible after the end of the fiscal year of 
the institution. 

Albert M. Barrett, Chairman 
E. Stanley Abbot 
Owen Copp 
George H. Kirby 
James V. May 
Frankwood E. Williams 

Committee on Statistics, American 
Medico-Psychological Association 

Thomas W. Salmon 

Medical Director l National Com- 
mittee for Mental Hygiene 

Eoith M. Fiirbush, Statistician, 

Horatio M. Pollock, 

' Consulting Statistician, 
Bureau of Statistics, National Com- 
mittee for Mental Hygiene 



Jigitizccty GoOglc 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Foreword . ...,.'. ..... 3 

Suggestions for the preparation of statistics 7 

Statistical cards .... , ... 8 

First admission . 8 

Rpadmission . 9 

Discharge 

Death 

Filling in cards 

*.'lassifli-atiun of mental diseases 

Dtfinitiiina and explanatory notes 

Ti HiDiiitti.- p'-yc:i(>4>-4 

Senile psychoses 

I'-tyrhii^fH with <■> re:.ral arteriimlerusis 

General paralysis . . . ,* 

Psychoses with cerebral syphilis 

Psychoses with Huntington's chores 

Psychoses with hrain tumor 

Psychoses with other brain or nervous diseases 

Alcoholic psychoses 

Psychoses due to drug* and other exogenout tosins 20 

Psychoses with pellagra 21 

Psychoses with other somatic diseases 21 

Manic-depressive psychoses . 23 

Involution melanrholiB ... . 23 

Dementia praecox ... 24 

Paranoia or paranoic conditions . . 25 

Epileptic psychoses . . 26' 

Psyehoneii roses and neuroses . ...... 26 

Psychoses with constitutional psychopathic inferiority 27 

Psychoses with mental deficiency 28 

l.'ndiajmosed psychoses *, 29 

Not insane 26 

Matistical tallies recommended 30 

Directions for the preparation "f statistical tables 31 

Table 1 (leneral information 31 

Table 2. Financial statement . , . . 38 

Table 3. Movement of population 32 

Table 4. Nativity 32 

Table. 5 Citizenship 33 

Table «. Psychoses of first admissions. 34 

Table 7. Race 34 



y, Google 



Page 

Table 8. Age. of first admissions , 38 

Table 9. Degree of education 37 

Table 10. Environment 37 

Table 11. Eronomic condition 3T 

Table 13. Use of alcohol 38 

Table 13. Marital condition 38 

Table 14. Psychoses of readmissions . . 38- 

Table 15. Discharge*! 38 

Table lfi. Causes of death . . 3ft 

Table 17. Age at time of death 10 

Table 18. Duration of hospital life 40 



Jigitizocty GoOglc 



STATISTICAL MANUAL FOR THE USE OP INSTITU- 
TIONS FOR THE INSANE 



Statistics of mental disease, to be trustworthy, must be 
based on accurate original data. If the facts first ascer- 
tained concerning the patients are recorded in a haphazard 
way without a clear understanding of the purposes to be 
attained, the statistics compiled therefrom will probably be 
very defective, if not absolutely worthless. 

As a first step in preparing statistics of patients in an 
institution for the insane it is necessary to formulate statis- 
tical data cards with the essential captions arranged in con- 
venient form. Such cards call for the same items of infor- 
mation concerning every patient^ and if properly designed 
and filled out, will furnish data tbat may be classified in 
various ways and tabulated so as to give clear summaries 
of important facts concerning the patients and their diseases 
and the results of treatment 

To facilitate tabulation and filing, it is recommended that 
four distinct statistical cards be used, viz. : 

1. A first admission card, to be filled out for every insane 
patient admitted for the first time to any hospital for the 
treatment of mental diseases, except institutions for tempo- 
rary care only. 

2. A readmission card, to he filled out for every insane 
patient admitted who has been previously under treatment in 
a hospital for mental diseases, excepting transfers and those 
who have received treatment only in institutions for tempo- 
rary care. 

3. A discharge card, to be filled out for every insane 
patient discharged, except transfers. 

4. A death card, to be filled out for every insane patient 
who dies in the hospital. 

It is suggested that first admission cards be printed on 
white cardboard, readmission cards on yellow, discharge 



, v Google 



cards on salmon, and death cards on blue, and that in each 
instance cards for male patients be printed with black ink 
and cards for female patients with red. 

Sample forms for the cards are submitted herewith : 

FIRST ADMISSION MALE (or female) 
State Hospital 



Committed 
Identification No. Legal status — Voluntary 



Psychosis— No. Group Type 

Hativity (state or country) of patient of father of motlier Date of 

arrival in U. S. 
Citizenship of patient — American foreign of father — American foreign 

Race Marital condition — Single married widowed divorced separated 

Education— None reads only reads and writes common school high school 

collegiate 
Occupation Religion (Denomination) 

Environment— Urban rural Economic condition— Dependent marginal 

comfortable 
Actual residence— County P. 0. 

Time in state 
Etiological factors othei than heredity 

I Tempera meD tally normal, abnormal (specify) 
abnormal (specify! 
Family history of mental diseases 
Family history of nervous diseases 
Family history of mental deficiency 
Family history of inebriety (alcohol or drugs) (specify) 

f Abstinent 
Alcoholic habits of patient J Moderate (specify) 

[ Intemperate (specify) 
Accompanying physical diseases not an integral part of the j 

Duration of present attack before admission yrs. mos. 

Number of previous attacks 

Date of admission 19 Age on admission yrs. 

Presented at staff meeting 19 By Dr. 

Hospital number for the year 
Note — This card for First Admission to any hospital for the i 
[Size of card 5 in. i 8 in.] 



Jigitizocty G00g[c 



KEADMI88I0N CARD MALE (or female) 

State Hospital 

Committed 
Name Identification No. Legal status — Voluntary 

Psychosis — No. Group 

Nativity (atate or country) of patie 

arrival in U. S. 
Citizenship of patient— American foreign of father — American foreign 

Race Marital condition — Single married widowed divorced separated 

Education— -None reads only reads and writes common school high school 

collegiate 
Occupation Religion (denomination) 

Environment — Urban rural Economic condition — Dependent marginal 

comfortable 
Actual residence — County P. 0. 

Time in state 
Etiological factors other than heredity 

( Temperamentally normal, abnormal (specify) 
abnormal (specify) 
Family history of mental diseases 
Family history of nervous diseases 
Family history of mental deficiency 
Family history of inebriety (alcohol or drugs) (specify) 

I Abstinent 
Alcoholic habits of patient ^ Moderate (specify) 

I intemperate (specify) 
Accompanying physical diseases not an integral part of the psychosis 

Duration of present attack before admission yri. mos. das. 

Number of previous attacks 

No. of previous admissions Date and duration of each previous hospital 

residence (exclusive of parole) 
Condition at last discharge Date Hosp 

Date of readmiasion 19 Age on readmission yrs. 

Presented at staff meeting 19 By Dr. 

Hospital number for the year 
Note — This card for cases previously admitted to any hospital for the 

[Size of card 5 in-, x 8 in.] 



Jigitizccty G00g[c 



10 

DISCHARGE CARD MALE (or female) 

State Hospital 

Committed 
Hame Identification No. Legal status— Voluntary 

Psychosis — No. Group Type 

Nativity (state or country) of patient of father of mother 

Citizenship of patient — American foreign of father — American foreign 

Age on discharge years 

Residence when admitted— County P. 0. 

No. of previous attacks 

No. of previous admissions Date of last admission 

Date and duration of each' previous hospital residence (exclusive of parole) 

Duration of last psychosis before admisaion years months days 

Duration of last hospital residence (exclusive of parole) years months 

days 
Total duration of hospital life (all admissions, exclusive of paroles) years 

months days 

Condition on discharge — Recovered much improved improved unimproved 
Not insane: Epilepsy alcholism drug addiction constitutional inferiority 

mental deficiency dotage others (specify) 
Date of parole - 19 

Date of discharge 1.9 

Patient was discharged to the custody of 
Address 
Hospital discharge number for the year 
[Size of card 5 in. x 8 in.] 



DEATH CARD MALE (or female) 

State Hospital 

Committed 
Name Identification No. Legal status — Voluntary 

Psychosis — No. Group Type 

Nativity (state or country) of patient of father of mother 

Citizenship of patient — American foreign of father — American foreign 

Age at death years 

No. of previous attacks No. of previffua admissions 

Date and duration of each previous hospital residence (exclusive of parole) 

Duration of last psychosis before admission years months days 

Date of last admission 

Period of last hospital residence years months days 

Total duration of hospital life (all admissions, exclusive of paroles) years 

months days 

Cause of death (Follow international list of causes and underline principal 

Autopsy No yes Findings of autopsy 

Residence when admitted— County city or village 

Date of death 19 

Hospital discharge number for the year 

[Size of card 5 in. x 8 in.] 



» by Google 



11 

The facts needed to fill out the admission cards are ob- 
tained from (a) the relatives and friends of the patient, 
{b) the patient himself, (c) the commitment papers, (d) the 
family physician, (e) official documents and records, and 
(f) the mental and physical examination of the patient. 

The nurse or attendant sent from the hospital to bring in 
a patient should be provided with a history blank and should 
note thereon all of the important facts concerning the patient 
and his family history that can be obtained from relatives 
and friends. Additional data should be secured when 
friends come to the hospital to visit the patient. 

The data required to fill out the discharge and death cards 
are obtained from the hospital records. These cards should 
always be consistent with the admission cards. 

It is advisable to have a statistical data sheet, similar to 
the first admission card, filled out and incorporated in the 
case record of the patient 

At the close of the fiscal year when all the cards are filled 
out and checked up, the statistical tables should be made 
therefrom. The tabulation can be easily and accurately 
done by sorting the cards into groups corresponding to the 
table headings and then counting the several groups. The 
totals should be made after each count is completed, and mis- 
takes rectified before the cards are regrouped. 

When the tables for the year are finished, the cards should 
be systematically filed according to patients' identification 
numbers, all of the cards relating to one patient being brought 
together. 

Filling in Caeds 

Fill in every caption on each card ; if full or accurate in- 
formation can not possibly be obtained, enter " U " (symbol 
for "facts unascertained"). 

If the information is negative, enter " none " or " no ". 

Do not use the interrogation point {?). 

Do not use the dash ( — ) for " unascertained " or for 
" negative ". 

Do not use the term " several " ; as " several years " ; enter 
rather " less than 1 yr.," " between 1 and 5 ym," or " over 10 
yrs.," if exact figures can not be obtained. 

Avoid round numbers ; accept figures ending with 5 or with 
with skepticism and only after close questioning. Avoid, 



> v Google 



12 

e. g., " 1 yr." for 11 nios., 12y 2 mos., etc., and " 1 mo." for 35 
days, etc. Avoid " 60 yrs." for 59 or 61 yra 

Avoid ambiguous abbreviations; as " lob. pneu." (lobar or 
lobular?), "par." (paranoic or paralytic?), etc., and use 
only standard abbreviations. 

If the place assigned to any caption of the schedule is too 
limited to enter all ascertained data, mark the blank "over", 
and enter the data on the back of the card. 

Entries on all cards should be typewritten. Designate 
items on the cards, by underscoring; as, single. Do not cross 
out items or use check marks. 

CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL DISEASES 
Explanatory notes of the various groups and clinical types 
follow the classification. 

1. Traumatic psychoses 

(a) Traumatic delirium 

(b) Traumatic constitution 

(c) Post-traumatic mental enfeeblement (dementia) 

2. Senile psychoses 

(a) Simple deterioration 

(b) Presbyophrenic type 

(c) Delirious and confused types 

(d) Depressed and agitated states in addition to de- 

terioration 

(e) Paranoid types 

(f) Pre-senile types 

3. Psychoses with cerebral arteriosclerosis 

4. General paralysis 

5. Psychoses with cerebral syphilis 

6. Psychoses with Huntington's chorea 

7. Psychoses with brain tumor 

8. Psychoses with other brain or nervous diseases 

The following are the more frequent affections and should 
be specified in the diagnosis. 
Cerebral embolism 
Paralysis agitans 

Meningitis, tubercular or other forms (to be specified) 
Multiple sclerosis 
Tabes 

Acute chorea 
Other conditions (to be specified) 



» by Google 



13 

9. Alcoholic psychoses 

(a) Pathological intoxication 

(b) Delirium tremens 

(c) Korsakow's psychosis 

(d) Acute hallucinosis 

(e) Chronic hallucinosis 

(f) Acute paranoid type 

(g) Chronic paranoid type 
(h) Alcoholic deterioration 

(i) Other types, acnte or chronic 

10. Psychoses due to drugs and other exogenous toxins 

(a) Opium (and derivatives), cocaine, bromides, 
chloral, etc., alone or combined (to be specified) 
("b) Metals, as lead, arsenic, etc. (to be specified) 

( c ) Gases ( to be specified ) 

(d) Other exogenous toxins (to be specified) 

11. Psychoses with pellagra 

12. Psychoses with other somatic diseases 

(a) Delirium with infectious diseases 

(b) Post-infectious psychosis 

(c) Exhaustion-delirium 

(d) Delirium of unknown origin 

(e) Cardio-renal diseases 

(f) Diseases of the ductless glands 

(g) Other diseases or conditions (to be specified) 

13. Manic-depressive psychoses 

(a) Manic type 

(b) Depressive type 

(c) Stupor 

(d) Mixed type 

(e) Circular type 

14. Involution melancholia 

15. Dementia praecox 

(a) Paranoid type 

(b) Catatonic type 

(c) Hebephrenic type 

(d) Simple type 

16. Paranoia or paranoic conditions 

17. Epileptic psychoses 

( a) Deterioration 

(b) Clouded states 

(c) Other conditions (to be specified) 



by Google 



14 

18. Fsychoneuroses and neuroses 

(a) Hysterical type 
{ b) Psychasthenic type 

(c) Neurasthenic type 

(d) Anxiety neuroses 

19. Psychoses with constitutional psychopathic inferiority 

20. Psychoses with mental deficiency 

21. Undiagnosed psychoses 

22. Not insane 

(a) Epilepsy without psychosis 

(b) Alcoholism without psychosis 

(c) Drug addiction without psychosis 

(d) Constitutional psychopathic inferiority without 

psychosis 

(e) Mental deficiency without psychosis 

(f) Others (to be specified) 

DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATORY NOTES 

The following explanatory notes and definitions of the vari- 
ous clinical groups were prepared for the Committee by Dr. 
George H. Kirby, Director, Psychiatric Institute, Ward's 
Island, New York City. 
1. Traumatic Psychoses 

The diagnosis should be restricted to mental disorders aris- 
ing as a direct or obvious consequence of a brain (or head) 
injury producing psychotic symptoms of a fairly character- 
istic kind. The amount of damage to the brain may vary 
from an extensive destruction of tissue to simple concussion 
or physical shock with or without fracture of the skull. 

Manic-depressive psychoses, general paralysis, dementia 
praecox, and other mental disorders in which trauma may 
act as a contributory or precipitating cause, should not be 
included in this group. 

The following are the most common clinical types of trau- 
matic psychosis and should be specified in the statistical rec- 
ord of the hospital : 

(a) Traumatic delirium: This may take the form of an 
acute delirium (concussion delirium), or a more protracted 
delirium resembling the Korsakow mental complex. 

(b) Traumatic constitution : Characterized by a gradual 
post-traumatic change in disposition with vasomotor insta- 
bility, headaches, fatigability, irritability or explosive emo- 



»vVjOOyit 



15 

tionai reactions; usually hyper-sensitiveness to alcohol, and 
in some cases development of paranoid, hysteroid, or epilep- 
toid symptoms. 

(c) Posttraumatic mental enfeeblement (dementia): 
Varying degrees of mental reduction with or without aphasic 
symptoms, epileptiform attacks or development of a cerebral 
arteriosclerosis. 
2. Senile Psychoses 

A well denned type of psychosis which as a rule develops 
gradually and is characterized by the following symptoms : 
Impairment of retention (forgetfulness) and general failure 
of memory more marked for recent experiences; defects in 
orientation and a general reduction of mental capacity; the 
attention, concentration and thinking processes are inter- 
fered with ; there is self-centering of interests, often irrita- 
bility and stubborn opposition; a tendency to reminiscences 
and fabrications. Accompanying this deterioration there may 
occur parauoid trends, depressions, confused states, etc. Cer- 
tain clinical types should therefore be specified, but these 
often overlap : 

(a) Simple deterioration : Retention and memory defects, 
reduction in intellectual capacity and narrowing of interests; 
usually also suspiciousness, irritability and restlessness, the 
latter particularly at night 

(b) Presbyophrenic type: Severe memory and retention 
defects with complete disorientation; but at the same time 
preservation of mental alertness and attentiveness with 
ability to grasp immediate impressions and conversation quite 
well. Forgetfulness leads to absurd contradictions and repe- 
titions; suggestibility and free fabrication are prominent 
symptoms. (The general picture resembles the Korsakow 
mental complex. ) 

(c) Delirious and confused types: Often in the early 
stages of the psychosis and for a. long period the picture is 
one of deep confusion or of a delirious condition. 

id) Depressed and agitated types: In addition to the un- 
derlying deterioration there may be a pronounced depression 
and persistent agitation. 

(e) Paranoid types: Well marked delusional trends, 
chiefly persecutory or expansive ideas, often accompany the 
deterioration and in the early stages may make the diagnosis 
difficult if the defect symptoms are mild. 



Google 



16 

(f) Pre-senile types : The so-called "Alzheimer's disease." 
An early senile deterioration which usually leads rapidly to 
a deep dementia. Reported to occur as early as the fortieth 
year. Most cases show an irritable or anxious depressive 
mood with aphasic or apractie symptoms.- There is apt to he 
general rcsistiveness and sometimes spasticity. 

3. Psychoses with Cerebral Arteriosclerosis 

The clinical symptoms, both mental and physical, are 
varied depending in the first place on the distribution and 
severity of the vascular cerebral disease and probably to some 
extent on the mental make-up of the person. 

Cerebral physical symptoms, headaches, dizziness, fainting 
attacks, etc., are nearly always present, and usually signs of 
focal brain disease appear sooner or later (aphasia, paralysis, 
etc.). 

The most important mental symptoms (particularly if the 
arteriosclerotic disease is diffuse) are impairment of mental 
tension, i. e., interference with the capacity to think quickly 
and accurately, to concentrate and to fix the attention; fatig- 
ability and lack of emotional control {alternate weeping and 
laughing), often a tendency to irritability is marked; the re- 
tention is impaired and with it there is more or less general 
defect of memory, especially in the advanced stages of the 
disease, or after some large destructive lesion occurs. 

Pronounced psychotic symptoms may appear in the form 
of depression (often of the anxious type), suspicions or para- 
noid ideas, or episodes of marked confusion. 

To be included in this group are the psychoses following 
cerebral softening or hemorrhage, if due to arterial disease. 
(Autopsies in state hospitals show that in arteriosclerotic 
cases softening is relatively much more frequent than hem- 
orrhage. ) 

Differentiation from senile psychosis is sometimes difficult 
particularly if the arteriosclerotic disease manifests itself in 
the senile period. The two conditions may be associated; 
when this happens preference should he given in the statis- 
tical report to the arteriosclerotic disorder. 

nigh blood pressure, although usually present, is not essen- 
tial for the diagnosis of cerebral arteriosclerosis. 

4. General Paralysis 

The range of symptoms encountered in general paralysis is 
too great to be reviewed here in detail. As to mental symp- 

3igitizGabyCj009lC 



17 

toms. most stress should be laid on the early changes in dis- 
position and character, judgment defects, difficulty about 
time relations and discrepancies in statements, forgetfulness 
and later on a diffuse memory impairment. Cases with 
marked grandiose trends are less likely to be overlooked than 
cases with depressions, paranoid ideas, alcoholic-like episodes, 
etc. 

Mistakes of diagnosis are most apt to be made in those cases 
having in the early stages pronounced psychotic symptoms 
and relatively slight defect symptoms, or cases with few. defi- 
nite physical signs. Lumbar puncture should always be made 
. if there is any doubt about the diagnosis. A Wassennann 
examination of the blood alone is not sufficient as this does 
not tell us whether or not the central nervous system is in- 
volved. 
5. Psychoses with Cerebral Syphilis 

Since general paralysis itself is now known to be a paren- 
chymatous form of brain syphilis, the differentiation of the 
cerebral syphilis eases might on theoretical grounds be re- 
garded as less important than formerly. Practically, how- 
ever, the separation of the non-parenchymatous forms is 
very important because the symptoms, the course and thera- 
peutic outlook in most of these cases are different from those 
of general paralysis. 

According to the predominant pathological characteristics, 
three types of cerebral syphilis may be distinguished, viz. : 
(a) Meningitic, (b) Endarteritic, and (r) Gummatous. The 
lines of demarcation between these types are not, however, 
sharp ones. We practically always find in the endarteritic 
and gummatous types a certain amount of meningitis. 

The acute meningitic form is the most frequent type of cere- 
bral syphilis and gives little trouble in diagnosis; many of 
these cases do not reach state hospitals. In most cases after 
prodromal symptoms (headache, dizziness, etc.) there is a 
rapid development of physical signs, usually cranial nerve 
involvement, and a mental picture of dullness or confusion 
with few psychotic symptoms except those related to a deliri- 
ous or organic reaction. 

In the rarer chronic meningitic- forms which are apt to 
occur a long time after the syphilitic infection, usually in 
the period in which we might expect general paralysis the 
diagnostic difficulties may be considerable. 



Google 



18 

In the endarteritic forms the most characteristic symptoms 
are those resulting from focal vascular lesions. 

In the gummatous forms the slowly developing focal and 
pressure symptoms are most significant 

In all forms of cerebral syphilis the psychotic manifesta- 
tions are less prominent than in general paralysis and the 
personality is much better preserved as shown by the social 
reactions, ethical sense, judgment and general behavior. The 
grandiose ideas and absurd trends of the general paralytic 
are rarely encountered in these cases. 

6. Psychoses With Huntington's Chorea 

Mental. symptoms are a constant accompaniment of this 
form of chorea and as a rule become more marked as the dis- 
ease advances. Although the disease is regarded as being 
hereditary in nature, a diagnosis can be made on the clinical 
picture in the absence of a family history. 

The chief mental symptoms are those of mental inertia 
and an emotional change, either apathy and silliness or a de- 
pressive irritable reaction with a tendency to passionate out- 
bursts. As the disease progresses the memory is affected to 
some extent, but the patient's ability to recall past events 
is often found to be surprisingly well preserved when the dis- 
inclination to cooperate and give information can be over- 
come. Likewise the orientation is well retained even when 
the patient appears very apathetic and listless. Suspicions 
and paranoid ideas are prominent in some cases. 

7. Psychoses with Brain Tumor 

A large majority of brain tumor cases show definite mental 
symptoms. Most frequent are mental dullness, somnolence, 
hebetude, slowness in thinking, memory failure, irritability 
and depression, although a tendency to facetiousness is some- 
times observed. Episodes of confusion with hallucinations 
are common; some cases express suspicions and paranoid 
ideas. 

The diagnosis must rest in most cases on the neurological 
symptoms, and these will depend on the location, size and 
rate of growth of the tumor. Certain general physical symp- 
toms due to an increased intra-cranial pressure are present- 
in most cases, viz: headache, dizziness, vomiting, slowing of 
the pulse, choked disc and interlacing of the color fields. 



-a by Google 



19 

8. Psychoses with other Brain or Nervous Diseases 

This division provides a place for grouping a variety of 
less common mental disorders associated with organic dis- 
ease of the nervous system and not included in the preceding 
larger groups. On the card the special type of brain or 
nervous diseases should be mentioned after the group name. 
The following are the conditions most frequently met with : 

(a) Cerebral embolism (if an incident in cerebral arteri- 
osclerosis it should be placed in group 3). 

(b) Paralysis agitans. 

(c) Meningitis, tubercular or other forms (to be speci- 
fied). 

(d) Multiple sclerosis. 

(e) Tabes (paresis to be carefully excluded). 

(f) Acute chorea (Sydenham's type). Hysterical chorea 
to be excluded. 

(g) Other conditions (to be specified). 

9. Alcoholic Psychoses 

The diagnosis of alcoholic psychosis should be restricted to 
these mental disorders arising with few exceptions in connec- 
tion with chronic drinking and presenting fairly well defined 
symptom-pictures. One must guard against making the alco- 
holic group too inclusive. Over-indulgence in alcohol is often 
found to be merely a symptom of another psychosis, or at 
any rate may be incidental to another psychosis, such as gen- 
eral paralysis, manic-depressive insanity, dementia praecox, 
epilepsy, etc. The cases to be regarded as alcoholic psychoses 
which do not result from chronic drinking are the episodic 
attacks in some psychopathic personalities, the dipsomanias 
(the true periodic drinkers) and pathological intoxication, 
any one of which may develop as the result of a single imbibi- 
tion or a relatively short spree. 

The following alcoholic reactions usually present symptoms 
distinctive enough to allow of clinical differentiation: 

(a) Pathological intoxication: An unusual or abnormal 
immediate reaction to taking a large or small amount of al- 
cohol. Essentially an acute mental disturbance of short dur- 
ation characterized usually by an excitement or furor with 
confusion and hallucinations, followed by amnesia. 

(b) Delirium tremens: An hallucinatory delirium with 
marked general tremor and toxic symptoms. 



Jigitizccty GoOglc 



(c) Korsakow's psychosis: This occurs with or without 
polyneuritis. The delirious type is not readily differen- 
tiated in the early stages from severe delirium tremens hut 
is more protracted. The non-delirious type presents a char- 
acteristic retention defect wi,tli disorientation, fabrication, 
suggestibility and tendency to misidentify persons. Hallu- 
cinations are infrequent after the- acute phase. 

(d) Acute hallucinosis: This is chiefly an auditory hal- 
lucinosis of rapid development with clearness of the sen- 
sorium, marked fears, and a more or less systematized per- 
secutory trend. 

(e) Chronic hallucinosis: This is an infrequent type 
which may he regarded as the persistence of the symptoms 
of the acute hallucinosis without change in the character of 
the symptoms except perhaps a gradual lessening of the emo- 
tional reaction accompanying the hallucinations. 

(f) Acute paranoid type: Suspicions, misinterpretations, 
and persecutory ideas, often a jealous trend; hallucinations 
usually subordinate; clearing up on withdrawal of alcohol. 

(g) Chronic paranoid type: Persistence of symptoms of 
the acute paranoid type with fixed delusions of persecution 
or jealousy usually not influenced by withdrawal of alcohol; 
difficult to differentiate from non-alcoholic paranoid states 
or dementia praecox. 

(h) Alcoholic deterioration: A slowly developing moral, 
volitional and emotional change in the chronic drinker; ap- 
parently relatively few cases are committed as the mental 
symptoms are not usually looked upon as sufficient to justify 
the diagnosis of a definite psychosis. The chief symptoms are 
ill humor and irascibility or a jovial, careless, facetious 
mood; ahusiveness to family, unreliability and tendency to 
prevarication; in some cases definite suspicions and jeal- 
ousy ; there is a general lessening of efficiency and capacity 
for physical and mental work; memory not seriously im- 
paired. To be excluded are residual defects due to Kor- 
sakow's psychosis, or mental reduction due to arteriosclerosis 
or to traumatic lesions. 

(i) Other types to be specified. 
10. Psychoses Due to Drugs and other Exogenous Toxins 

The clinical pictures produced by drugs and other exogen- 
ous poisons are principally deliria or states of confusion; 



> v Google 



21 

although sometimes hallucinatory and paranoid reactions are 
met with. Certain poisons and gases apparently produce 
special symptoms, e. g., cocaine, lead, illuminating gas, etc. 
Grouped according to the toxic etiological factors the follow- 
ing are to be differentiated : 

(a) Opium (and derivatives), cocaine, bromides, chloral, 
etc., alone or combined ( to be specified ) 

(b) Metals, as arsenic, lead, etc. (to be specified) 

(c) Gases ( to be specified ) 

(d) Other exogenous toxins (to be specified) 

11. Psychoses with Pellagra 

The relation which various mental disturbances bear to the 
disease pellagra is not yet settled. Cases of pellagra occur- 
ring during the course of a well established mental disease 
such as dementia praecox, manic-depressive insanity, senile 
dementia, etc.; should not be included in this group. The 
mental disturbances which are apparently most intimately 
connected with pellagra are certain delirious or confused 
states (toxic-organic-like reactions) arising during the course 
of a severe pellagra. These are the cases which for the pres- 
ent should be placed in the group of psychoses with pellagra 

12. Psychoses with other Somatic Diseases 

Under this heading are brought together those mental dis- 
orders which appear to depend directly upon some physical 
disturbance or somatic disease not already provided for in . 
the foregoing groups. 

In the types designated below under (a) to (e) inclusive, 
we have essentially deliria or states of confusion arising dur- 
ing the course of an infectious disease or in association with 
a condition of exhaustion or a toxaemia. The mental dis- 
turbance is apparently the result of interference with brain 
nutrition or the unfavorable action of certain deleterious sub- 
stances, poisons or toxins, on the central nervous system. The 
clinical pictures met with are extremely varied. The delirium 
may be marked by severe motor excitement and incoherence 
of utterance, or by multiform hallucinations with deep con- 
fusion or a dazed, bewildered condition ; epileptiform attacks, 
catatonic-like symptoms, stupor, etc. may occur. In classify : 
ing these psychoses a difficult problem arises in many cases 
if attempts are made to distinguish between infection and ex- 



, v Google 



22 

haustion as etiological factors. For statistical reports the 
following differentiations should be made : 

Under (a) "Delirium with infectious diseases" place the 
initial deliria which develop during the prodromal or incuba- 
tion period or before the febrile stage as in some cases of 
typhoid, small-pox, malaria, etc. ; the febrile deliria which 
seem to bear a definite relation to the rise in temperature; 
the post-febrile deliria of the period of defervescence includ- 
ing the so-called " collapse delirium." 

Under (b) " Post-infectious psychoses " are to be grouped 
deliria, the mild forms of mental confusion, or the depressive, 
irritable, suspicious reactions which occur during the period 
of convalescence from infectious diseases. Physical asthenia 
and prostration are undoubtedly important factors in these 
conditions and differentiation from " exhaustion deliria " 
must depend chiefly on the history and obvious close rela- 
tionship to the preceding infectious disease. (Some cases 
which fail to recover show a peculiar mental enfeeblement ) 
In this group should be classed the " cerebropathica psychica 
toxaemica" or the non-alcoholic polyneuritic psychoses fol- 
lowing an infectious disease as typhoid, influenza, septi- 
caemia, etc. 

Under (c) "Exhaustion deliria" are to be classed psy- 
choses in which physical exhaustion, not associated with or 
the result of an infectious disease, is the chief precipitating 
cause of the mental disorder, e. g., hemorrhage, severe phy- 
sical over-exertion, deprivation of food, prolonged insomnia, 
debility from wasting disease, etc. 

Of the psychoses which occur with diseases of the ductless 
glands, the best known are the thyrogenous mental disor- 
ders. Disturbance of the pituitary or of the thymus func- 
tion is often associated with mental symptoms. 

According to the etiology and symptoms the following 
types should therefore be specified under " Psychoses with 
Other Somatic Diseases:" 

(a) Delirium with infectious disease (specify) 

(b) Post-infectious psychosis (specify) 

(c) Exhaustion delirium 

(d) Delirium of unknown origin 

(e) Cardio-renal disease 

(f) Diseases of the ductless glands (specify) 

■- '(g) Other diseases or conditions (to be specified) 



Google 



13. Manic-Depressive Psychoses 

This group comprises the essentially benign affective psy- 
choses, mental disorders which fundamentally are marked by 
emotional oscillations and a tendency to recurrence. Vari- 
ous psychotic trends, delusions, illusions and hallucinations, 
clouded states, stupor, etc. may be added. To be dis- 
tinguished are: 

The manic reaction with its feeling of well-being (or irasci- 
bility), flight of ideas and over-activity. 

The depressive reaction with its feeling of mental and phy- 
sical insufficiency, a despondent, sad or hopeless mood and 
in severe depressions, retardation and inhibition; in some 
cases the mood is one of uneasiness and anxiety, accompanied 
by restlessness. 

The mixed reaction, a combination of manic and depressive 
symptoms. 

The stupor reaction with its marked reduction in activity, 
depression, ideas of. death, and often dream-like hallucina- 
tions; sometimes mutism, drooling and muscular symptoms 
suggestive of the catatonic manifestations of dementia prae- 
cox, from which, however, these manic-depressive stupors are 
to be differentiated. 

An attack is called circular when, as is often the case, one 
phase is followed immediately by another phase, e. g., a manic 
reaction passes over into a depressive reaction or vice versa. 

Oases formerly classed as allied to manic-depressive should 
be placed here rather than in the undiagnosed group. 

In the statistical reports the following should be specified : 

(ft) Manic attack 

(b) Depressive attack 

(c) Stuporous attack 

(d) Mixed attack 

(e) Circular attack 

14. Involution Melancholia 

These depressions are probably related to the manic-depres- 
sive group; nevertheless the symptoms and the course of the 
involution cases are sufficiently characteristic to justify us in 
keeping them apart as special forms of emotional reaction. 

To be included here are the slowly developing depressions 
of middle life and later years which come on with worry, in- 
somnia, uneasiness, anxiety and agitation, showing usually 
the unreality and sensory complex, but little or no evidence 



Google 



24 

of any difficulty in thinking. The tendency is for the course 
to be a prolonged one. Arteriosclerotic depressions should 
be excluded. 

When agitated depressions of the involution period are 
clearly superimposed on a manic-depressive foundation with 
previous attacks (depression or excitement) they should for 
statistical purposes be classed in the manic-depressive group. 
15. Dementia Praecox 

This group cannot be satisfactorily defined at the present 
time as there are still too many points at issue as to what con- 
stitute the essential clinical features of dementia praecox. A 
large majority of the cases which should go into this group 
may, however, be recognized without special difficulty, al- 
though there is an important smaller group of doubtful, atypi- 
cal allied or transitional cases which from the standpoint of 
symptoms or prognosis occupy an uncertain clinical position, 

Oases formerly classed as allied to dementia praecox should 
be placed here rather than in the undiagnosed group. The 
term " schizophrenia" is now used by many writers instead 
of dementia praecox. 

The following mentioned features are sufficiently well es- 
tablished to be considered most characteristic of the dementia 
praecox type of reaction : 

A seclusive type of personality or one showing other evi- 
dences of abnormality in the development of the instincts and 
feelings. 

Appearance of defects of interest and discrepancies be- 
tween thought on the one hand and the behavior-emotional 
reactions on the other. 

A gradual blunting of the emotions, indifference or silliness 
with serious defects of judgment and often hypochondriacal 
complaints, suspicions or ideas of reference. 

Development of peculiar trends, often fantastic ideas, with 
odd, impulsive or negativistic conduct not accounted for by 
any acute emotional disturbance or impairment of the sen- 
sorium. 

Appearance of autistic thinking and dream-like ideas, 
peculiar feelings of being forced, of interference with the 
mind, of physical or mystical influences, but with retention of 
clearness in other fields (orientation, memory, etc.). 

According to the prominence of certain symptoms in indi- 



Google 



25 

vidua] cases the following four clinical forms of dementia 
praeeox may be 'specified, but it should be borne in mind 
that these are only relative distinctions and that transitions 
from one clinical form to another are common : 

(a) Paranoid type; Cases characterized by a prominence 
of delusions, particularly ideas of persecution or grandeur, 
often connectedly elaborated, and hallucinations in various 
fields. 

(b) Catatonic type : Cases in which there is a prominence 
of negativistic reactions or various peculiarities of conduct 
with phases of stupor or excitment, the latter characterized 
by impulsive, queer or stereotyped behavior and usually hal- 
lucinations. 

(e) Hebephrenic type: Cases showing prominently a 
tendency to silliness; smiling, laughter, grimacing, manner- 
isms in speech and action, and numerous peculiar ideas 
usually absurd, grotesque and changeable in form. 

(d) Simple type: Cases characterized by defects of in- 
terest, gradual development of an apathetic state, often with 
peculiar behavior, but without expression of delusions or 
hallucinations. 

16. Paranoia or Paranoic Conditions 

From this group should be excluded the deteriorating para- 
noic states and paranoic states symptomatic of other mental 
disorders or of some damaging factor such as alcohol, or- 
ganic brain disease, etc. 

The group comprises cases which show clinically fixed sus- 
picions, persecutory delusions, dominant ideas or grandiose 
trends logically elaborated and with due regard for reality 
after once a false interpretation or premise has been ac- 
cepted. Further characteristics are formally correct con- 
duct, adequate emotional reactions, clearness and coherence 
of the train of thought 

17. Epileptic Psychoses 

In addition to the epileptic deterioration, transitory psy- 
choses may occur which are usually characterized by a 
clouded mental state followed by an amnesia for external 
occurrences during the attack. (The hallucinatory and 
■dream-like experiences of the patient during the attack may 
be vividly recalled. ) Various automatic and secondary states 
of consciousness may occur. 



Google 



26 

According- to the most prominent clinical features the epi- 
leptic mental disorders should therefore be specified as fol- 
lows : 

(a) Deterioration: A gradual development of mental dull- 
ness, slowness of association and thinking, impairment of 
memory, irritability or apathy. 

(b) Clouded states: Usually in the form of dazed reac- 
tions with deep confusion, bewilderment and anxiety or ex- 
citements with hallucinations, fears and violent outbreaks; 
instead of fear there may be ecstatic moods with religious 
exaltation. 

(c) Other conditions (to be specified). 

18. Psychoneuroses and Neuroses 

The psychoneurosis group includes those disorders in 
which mental forces or ideas of which the subject is either 
aware (conscious) or unaware (unconscious) bring about 
various mental and physical symptoms; in other words these 
disorders are essentially psychogenic in nature. 

The term neurosis is now generally used synonymously 
with psychoneurosis, although it has been applied to certain 
disorders in which, while the symptoms are both mental and 
physical, the primary cause is thought to be essentially phy- 
sical. In most instances, however, both psychogenic and phy- 
sical causes are operative and we can assign only a relative 
weight to the one or the other. 

The following types are sufficiently well defined clinically 
to be specified: 

(a) Hysterical type: Episodic mental attacks in the form 
of delirium, stupor or dream states during which repressed 
wishes, mental conflicts or emotional experiences detached 
from ordinary consciousness break through and temporarily 
dominate the mind. The attack is followed by partial or 
complete amnesia. Various physical disturbances (sensory 
and motor) occur in hysteria, and these represent a conver- 
sion of the affect of the repressed disturbing complexes into 
bodily symptoms or, according to another formulation, there 
is a dissociation of consciousness relating to some physical 
function. 

(b) Psychasthenic type: This includes the compul- 
sive and obsessional neuroses of some writers. The main 



> v Google 



clinical characteristics are phobias, obsessions, morbid doubts 
and impulsions, feelings of insufficiency, nervous tension and 
anxiety. Episodes of marked depression and agitation may 
occur. There is no disturbance of consciousness or amnesia 
as in hysteria. 

(c) Neurasthenic type: This should designate the fatigue 
neuroses in which physical as well as mental causes evidently 
figure; characterized essentially by mental and motor fatig- 
ability and irritability; also various hyperesthesias and 
paraesthesias ;' hypochondriasis and varying degrees of de- 
pression. 

(d) Anxiety neuroses: A clinical type in which morbid 
anxiety or fear is the most prominent feature. A general 
nervous irritability (or excitability) is regularly associated 
with the anxious expectation or dread ; in addition there are 
numerous physical symptoms which may be regarded as the 
bodily accompaniments of fear, particularly cardiac and 
vasomotor disturbances : the heart's action is increased, often 
there is irregularity and palpitation: there may be sweating, 
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, suffocative feelings, dizziness, 
trembling, shaking, difficulty in locomotion, etc. Fluctua- 
tions occur in the intensity of the symptoms, the acute exacer- 
bations constituting the " anxiety attack." 

19. Psychoses with Constitutional Psychopathic Inferiority 
Under the designation of constitutional psychopathic in- 
feriority is brought together a large group of pathological 
personalities whose abnormality of make-up is expressed 
mainly in the character and intensity of their emotional and 
volitional reactions. Individuals with an intellectual defect 
(feeblemindedness) are not to be included in this group, 

Several of the preceding groups, in fact all of the so-called 
constitutional psychoses, manic-depressive, dementia prae- 
cox, paranoia, psyehoneuroses, etc., may be considered as aris- 
ing on a basis of psychopathic inferiority because the previ- 
ous mental make-up in these conditions shows more or less 
clearly abnormalities in the emotional and volitional spheres, 
These reactions are apparently related to special forms of 
psychopathic make-up now fairly well differentiated, and the 
associated psychoses also have their own distinctive features. 
There remain, however, various other less well differen- 
tiated types of psychopathic personalities, and in these the 



> v Google 



28 

psychotic reactions (psychoses) also differ from those al- 
ready specified in the preceding groups. 

It is these less well differentiated types of emotional and 
volitional deviation which are to be designated, at least for 
statistical purposes, as constitutional psychopathic inferior- 
ity. The type of behavior disorder, the social reactions, the 
trends of interests, etc., which the psychopathic inferior may 
show give special features to many cases, e. g., criminal 
traits, moral deficiency, tramp life, sexual perversions and 
various temperamental peculiarities. 

The pronounced mental disturbances or psychoses which 
develop in psychopathic inferiors and bring about their com- 
mitment are varied in their clinical form and are usually of 
an episodic character. Most frequent are attacks of irrita- 
bility, excitement, depression, paranoid episodes, transient 
confused states, etc. True prison psychoses belong in this 
group. 

In accordance with the standpoint developed above, a psy- 
chopathic inferior with a manic-depressive attack should be 
classed in the manic-depressive group, and likewise a psy- 
chopathic inferior with a schizophrenic psychosis should go 
in the dementia praecox group. 

Psychopathic inferiors without an episodic mental attack 
or any psychotic symptoms should be placed in the not insane 
group under the appropriate sub-heading. 

20. Psychoses with Mental Deficiency 

This group includes the psychoses with various types of 
intellectual deficiency or feeblemindedness. The degree of 
mental deficiency should be determined by the history and 
the use of standard psychometric tests. The intellectual 
level may be denoted in the statistics by specifying moron, 
imbecile, idiot 

Acute, usually transient psychoses of various forms occur 
in mentally deficient persons and commitment to a hospital 
for the insane may be necessary. The most common mental 
disturbances are episodes of excitement or irritability, de- 
pressions, paranoid trends, hallucinatory attacks, etc. 

Mentally deficient persons may suffer from manic-depres- 
sive attacks or from dementia praecox. When this occurs 
the diagnostic grouping should be manic-depressive or de- 
mentia praecox as the case may he. 



Jigitizccty GoOglc 



Mental deficiency cases without psychotic disturbances 
should go into the group of not insane under the appropriate 
sub-heading. ■ 

/ 21. Undiagnosed Psychoses 

In this group should be placed the cases in which a satis- 
factory diagnosis cannot he made and the psychosis must 
therefore be regarded as an unclassified one. The difficulty 
may be due to lack of information or inaccessibility of the 
patient; or the clinical picture may be obscure, the etiology 
unknown, or the symptoms unusual. Cases placed in this 
group during the year should be again reviewed before the 
annual diagnostic tables are completed. 

Cases of the type formerly placed in one of the allied 
groups should not be put in the undiagnosed group except 
for some special reason. Most of the cases hitherto called 
allied should be placed in the main group to winch they seem 
most closely related. 

/ 22. Not Insane 

This group should receive the occasional case which after 
investigation and observation gives no evidence of having had 
a psychosis. The only difficulty likely to be encountered in the 
statistical reports will arise in the grouping of patients who 
have recovered from a psychosis prior to admission. In such 
cases, if the history, the commitment papers or .the patient's 
retrospective account shows that a psychosis actually existed 
immediately before admission, that is, at the time of com- 
mitment, then the case should be considered as having suf- 
fered from a mental disorder, and classification under the ap- 
propriate heading should be made. 

If it is determined that no psychosis existed, then the con- 
dition which led to admission should be specified. The fol- 
lowing come most frequently into consideration: 

(a) Epilepsy without psychosis 

(b) Alcoholism without psychosis 

(c) Drug addiction without psychosis 

(d) Constitutional psychopathic inferiority without psy- 

chosis 

(e) Mental deficiency without psychosis 

(f) Other conditions (to be specified) 



Jigitizccty GoOglc 



STATISTICAL TABLES RECOMMENDED 
A series of eighteen statistical tables is recommended for 
the use of all institutions for the insane. These provide for 
the systematic presentation of the data that should be an- 
nually compiled by every such institution and that should 
be available for use by everyone interested in psychiatry or 
the treatment of mental diseases. These tables are: 

Table 1. 

Table 2. 

Table 3. 

Table 4. 

Table 5. 

Table 6. 



General information. 
Financial statement 
Movement of patients. 
Nativity and parentage of first admissions. 
Citizenship of first admissions. 
Psychoses of first admissions, types as well as 
principal psychoses to be designated. 

Table 7. Race of first admissions classified with reference 
to principal psychoses. 

Table 8. Age of first admissions classified with reference 
to principal psychoses. 

Table 9. Degree of education of first admissions classified 
with reference to principal psychoses. 

Table 10. Environment of first admissions classified with 
reference to principal psychoses. 

Table 11. Economic condition of first admissions classified 
with reference to principal psychoses. 

Table 12. Use of alcohol by first admissions classified with 
reference to principal psychoses. 

Table 13. Marital condition of first admissions classified 
with reference to principal psychoses. 

Table 14. Psychoses of readmissions, types as well as prin- 
cipal psychoses to be designated. 

Table 15. Discharges of patients classified with reference 
to principal psychoses and condition on dis- 
cbarge. 

Table 16. Causes of death of patients classified with refer- 
ence to principal psychoses. 

Table 17. Age of patients at time of death classified with 
reference to principal psychoses. 

Table 18. Duration of hospital life of patients dying in hos- 
pital, classified with reference to principal 



Jigitizccty GoOglc 



31 

The National Committee for Mental Hygiene has printed 
a series of forms to be used in preparing the foregoing tables 
and will furnish them free to every institution requesting 
them or that signifies its willingness to cooperate in the gen- 
eral movement for uniform statistics. The forms are num- 
bered to correspond with the tables. In order to secure uni- 
formity in filling out the blanks the following explanations 
and definitions are submitted : 

directions fob the preparation of statistical tables 
Table 1. General Information 

The data relative to hospital plant, medical service, em- 
ployees and patients, called for in this table, should be given 
as of the last day of the fiscal year of the institution. 

Hospital plant: The value of the hospital property 
should be estimated at cost unless its original value has been 
diminished by depreciation. In case a considerable amount 
of depreciation has occurred, a reasonable allowance there- 
for should be made. As the estimates of the value of hospital 
property in different institutions will be subject to compari- 
son, the appraisal in each case should be made with care and 
should represent as nearly as possible the true value of the 
property. 

Medical service: The term " assistant physicians," as 
used in the table, includes all physicians regularly employed 
in the hospital in a grade below that of superintendent and 
above that of medical interne. The term " clinical assist- 
ants " includes physicians and medical students who are em- 
ployed temporarily or permanently in hospital work below 
the grade of medical interne. 

Consulting physicians, eye and ear specialists, dentists, 
and pharmacists, are not to be included ia the report of the 
medical service. 

Employees: The term " graduate nurses " includes only 
those nurses who have graduated from a school of nursing 
maintained by a general hospital or a hospital for the insane 
giving a course covering at least two years. 

The term " social workers " refers to persons regularly em- 
ployed by the hospital to look after the interests of parole 
and other out-patients. Voluntary workers in this field are 
not to be included in the table. 



Jigitizccty GoOglc 



32 

Table 2. Financial Statement 
The data should be given in accordance with the headings 
provided in the table so far as possible. If it is impossible 
to supply the data pertaining to any of the items the total 
receipts and disbursements should be given and explanations 
concerning their classification may be submitted in detail on 
a separate sheet. The various terms in the table are used in 
the ordinary sense and are self-explanatory. 

Table 3. Movement of Insane Patient Population 

This table calls for a report of movement of insane pati- 
ents apart from other patients, who may be eared for in the 
same institution. As rates of admission, discharge and death 
'will be computed from the data, submitted from" this table, 
it is important that the directions included therein, be very 
carefully followed. For convenience of reference, the prin- 
cipal terms used in this table are herein defined. These terms 
have the same significance wherever used in the tables de- 
scribed in this manual.' 

" First admissions " includes all insane patients admitted 
for the first time to any institution for the insane, public or 
private, wherever situated, in or outside of state, excepting 
institutions for temporary care only. 

" Readmissions " includes all insane patients admitted 
who have been previously under treatment in an institution 
for the insane, excepting transfers and patients who have re- 
ceived treatment only in institutions for temporary care. 

" Recovered " indicates the condition of patients who have 
regained their normal mental health so that they may be con- 
sidered as having practically the same mental status as they 
had previous to the onset of the psychosis. 

" Improved " denotes any degree of mental gain less than 
recovery, 

A " voluntary patient " is one who is received in an institu- 
tion upon his own application and without commitment 

Table 4. Nativity op First Admissions and of Parents of 
Fikst Admissions 
Care should be taken to ascertain the country of birth of 
every first admission. Changes in national boundaries made 
by the present war should not be recognized until its close 
and until the new boundary lines, if any, are definitely fixed. 

JigitizecOydOOQlC 



The following is the list of countries to be used in reporting 
nativity : 

Modified Form of United States Census Classification of Nativity 



Africa 


Fiance 


Porto Rico 


Aeiat 


Qermany 


Portugal 


Australia 


Greece 


Koumania. 


Austria 


Hawaii 


Russia 


Belgium 


Holland 


Scotland 


Bohemia 


Hungary 


South America 


Can a da J 


India 


Spain 


Central America 


Ireland 


Sweden 


China 


Italy 


Switzerland 


Cub* 


Japan 


Turkey in Asia 


Denmark 


Mexico 


Turkey in Europe 


England 


Norway 


Wales 


Europe! 


Philippine Islands West Indies" 


Finland 


Poland 


Other countries 



+ Not otherwise specified. 
t Includes Newfoundland. 
•Except Cuba and Porto Rico. 

Table 5. Citizenship of First Admissions 

Accurate data concerning the citizenship of first admis- 
sions in the several states is highly important as the matter 
has a direct bearing on the policy of the United States rela- 
tive to immigration. 

The following notes pertaining to citizenship may be found 
helpful : 

Foreign-born persons (with few exceptions) are aliens un- 
less naturalized and should be so reported if evidence of their 
naturalization ean not be produced. 

Aliens may be naturalized in several ways, as follows : 

1. By making required declarations and receiving final 
naturalization papers from a court of competent jurisdiction. 

2. A woman, by the naturalization of her husband or by 
marriage to a citizen. 

3. Minors, by the naturalization of their parents. 

All persons (with few exceptions) born in the United 
States are citizens regardless of parentage. 

A woman loses her citizenship by marriage to an alien. 

A declaration of intention does not confer rights of citi- 
zenship; a foreigner is an alien until naturalized. An alien, 
to be eligible for citizenship, must have resided in the United 
States continuously for five years. 



Google 



u 



Table 6. Psychoses of Fibst Admissions 
In diagnosing the mental diseases of patients, the instruc- 
tions given in this manual (pages 14-29) should be carefully 
studied and followed so far as possible. In making out the 
table, give the total for each numbered group and so far as 
may be determined the number in each subdivision thereof. 

Table 7. Race of First Admissions Classified with Ref- 
erence to Principal Psychoses 
The race of patients admitted should be designated by the 
terms given in the following list : 



African (Hack) 


Greek 


Scotch 


American Indian 


Hebrew 


Slavonic" 


Armenian 


Irish 


Spanish 


Bulgarian 


Italian* 


Spanish-American 


Chinese 


Japanese 


Syrian 


Cuban 


'Lithuanian 


Turkish 


Dutch and Flemish 


Magyar 


Welsh 


East Indian 


Mexican 


West Indian (except 


English 


Pacific Islander 


Cuban) 


Finnish 


Portuguese 


Other specific races 


French 


Roumanian 


Mixed 


German 


Scandinavian! 


Race unascertained 



+ Includes " north " and " south." 
t Norwegians, Danes and Swedes. 

■Includes Bohemian, Bosnian, Croatian, Delmatian, Herzegovinian, Mont- 
enegrin, Moravian, Polish, Russian, Ruthenian, Servian, Slovak, Slovenian. 

The " Dictionary of Races " prepared by the Immigration 
Commission should be used as a guide for the determination 
of race. A pamphlet copy of this excellent manual may be 
obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Washing- 
ton, D. C, for twenty cents. 

The following suggestions relative to race classification 
should be carefully noted : 

African. This term should be applied to all negroes of 
pure or mixed blood, whether coming from Africa, Cuba or 
other West Indian Islands, Europe or North or South 
America. 



Jigitizccty GoOglc 



35 

Armenian. Care should be taken not to confuse Armen- 
ians with Syrians. 

Bulgarian. The Bulgarians who come to the United 
States are all from Bulgaria but, with the readjustment of 
boundary lines which may follow the present war, it is likely 
that in the future it will not always be possible to distinguish 
Bulgarians by their starting place in Europe. The language 
should identify them in all cases. 

Cuban. Care must be taken not to include negroes and 
Spanish-Americans among " Cubans." 

Dutch and Flemish. Nearly all the Dutch who come to 
the United States come from Holland. They call themselves 
" Hollanders." The Flemish come principally from Belgium. 

East Indian. This term refers to the natives of the East 
Indies, including Hindus, and is a very loose term, ethnologi- 
cally. This is a matter of small importance, however, as 
very few immigrants come to the United States from the 
East Indies. 

English. Care must be taken to exclude Hebrews who 
are born in England, also English-speaking people of other 
races. 

Finnish. All natives of Finland are not Finns; many of 
them are Swedes. Of the Finns living in Europe, more than 
1,000,000 live outside of Finland. 

German. Care must be taken to classify Germans from 
Russia as Germans. 

Hebrew. No difficulty will be experienced in identifying 
Hebrews and they should be so classified without regard to 
the country from which they come. 

Italian. Very few Italians come to the United States from 
any country except Italy, although some come from Brazil 
and the Argentine Republic. Care must be taken not to con- 
fuse these with Spanish-Americans. 

Lithuanian. Lithuanians in the United States are quite 
likely to be confused with Poles or Slovaka They are quite 
distinct from the " Slavonic " people and should be enumer- 
ated separately. 



Jigitizccty GoOglc 



Magyar. Magyars are often called "Hungarians," 
*' Huns " or " Hunyaks " in popular language in this country. 

Ro u man i an. In reporting patients born in Roumania, 
the only chance for error is the failure to exclude Hebrews 
and Gypsies. There are about half as many Roumanians in 
Hungary as there are in Roumania and so it is necessary to 
consider them in reporting the race of natives of Hungary. 

Slavonic. This is a very important racial division as a 
very large number of Slavonic immigrants have come to the 
United States in recent years. It is believed that the use of 
this term will solve a great many difficulties as it makes it 
unnecessary to distinguish between Poles, Slovaks, etc. The 
only danger to guard against is that of including Lithuanians, 
Finns, Magyars or Roumanians. 

Spanish. Care should be taken not to apply this term to 
Spanish-Americans. 

Spanish- Americans. This term refers only to " the peo- 
ple of Central and South America of Spanish descent" 

Turkish. Armenians and Syrians should not be included 
under this designation. 

West Indian. Care should be taken to exclude negroes, 
Cubans and Spanish-Americans. Only a very small number 
of West Indians not negroes, are admitted to the United 
States. 

Mixed. This term should be used to designate the race 
of a patient whose ancestors were of two or more races. 

The terms "American," " Swiss," and "Austrian," should 
not be used to designate race (see discussion of these terms 
in the "Dictionary of Races:" American, p. 102; Swiss, p. 
138 ; Austrian, p. 20). 

Table 8. Age of First Admissions Classified with Refer- 
ence to Principal Psychoses 

In filling out this table and the other tables in which the 
principal psychoses are correlated with other items, care 
should be taken to give the same totals for each group in 
every table. 

Age groups as designated in the headings are inclusive, 
e. g., 15-19 years includes the years 15, 10, 17, 18 and 19. 



Jigitizccty GoOglc 



Table 9. Degree of Education of First Admissions Clas- 
sified with Reference to Principal Psychoses 

" Illiterate " denotes persons who cannot read and write. 

Under " reads and writes " should be included those who 
have attended a common school but who have not completed 
the work of the fourth grade. Common school, high school, 
and college should be interpreted as meaning graduation from 
such institutions respectively or completion of at least half 
of the prescribed course. Two years of a course taken in a 
professional school, snch as medicine, dentistry and phar- 
macy, should be considered as college education. Business 
schools are principally of common school grade although a 
few are of high school or college grade. 

Table 10. Environment of First Admissions Classified 
with Reference to Principal Psychoses 
" Urban " and " rural " are used in this table as in the 
United States census classification. Places having a popula- 
tion of 2,500 or more are considered as " urban." All other 
places are considered as " rural." 

Table 11. Economic Condition of First Admissions Clas- 
sified with Reference to Principal Psychoses 
The term " economic condition " refers to the patients' cir- 
cumstances before the onset of the psychosis. The terms used 
in classifying " economic condition " are defined as follows: 

Dependent: Lacking in necessities of life or receiving aid 
from public funds or persons outside the immediate family. 

Marginal: Living on daily earnings but accumulating 
little or nothing; being on the margin between self-support 
and dependency. 

Comfortable: Having accumulated resources sufficient 
to maintain self and family for at least four months. 

Patients should not be classed as " dependent " because 
they are not able to reimburse the hospital for their mainten- 
ance provided they were previously able to maintain them- 
selves. Minors and aged people cared for by their families 



> v Google 



JigmzocB, GoOgk'